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FAQs

Below is a list of the FAQs which we have received and answered. If you have a question which you feel should be on this list, please submit it to us at faq@chelmsforddogassociation.org.

Q: Why are the FAQs so bare right now?
A: Questions (and answers) will be added as they are presented. The Dogs FAQ will be updated as time allows.

Dogs

“Service animals are defined as dogs, or miniature horses, that are individually trained to do work or perform tasks for people with disabilities. Examples of such work or tasks include guiding people who are blind, alerting people who are deaf, pulling a wheelchair, alerting and protecting a person who is having a seizure, reminding a person with mental illness to take prescribed medications, calming a person with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) during an anxiety attack, or performing other duties. Service animals are working animals, not pets. The work or task a dog has been trained to provide must be directly related to the person’s disability. Dogs whose sole function is to provide comfort or emotional support do not qualify as service animals under the ADA.”

Handouts given during the “Should I Stay or Should I Go?” presentation

From the Association of Professional Dog Trainers:apdt_logo

APDT: Dog Park Etiquette

APDT: Dog Park Body Language

 

From The Dog Gurus: TheDogGurus

TDG: Safe Play – Client Card

TDG: Is My Dog Happy?

TDG: The Environment of Off Leash Dog Play

From MayCastle Consulting:maycastle

Heat Index Chart

 

Understanding Dog Behavior

 

 

The Canine Ladder of Aggression

 

Dog to English Translation Chart

Category: Dogs
  
 
  • Heavy panting
  • Excessive thirst
  • Glazed eyes
  • Bright or dark red tongue or gums
  • Excessive drooling
  • Staggering
  • Vomiting and bloody diarrhea
  • Elevated body temperature (104° and up)
  • Increased pulse and heartbeat
  • Weakness or collapse
  • Seizures
  • Unconsciousness

 

 

Category: Dogs

The Ladder of Aggression

The Ladder of Aggression is a depiction of the gestures that any dog will give in response to an escalation of perceived stress and threat, from very mild social interaction and pressure, to which blinking and nose licking are appropriate responses, to severe, when overt aggression may well selected. The purpose of such behaviour is to deflect threat and restore harmony and the presence of appeasing and threat-averting behaviour in the domestic dog’s repertoire is essential to avoid the need for potentially damaging aggression. The dog is a social animal for whom successful appeasement behaviour is highly adaptive and it is used continually and routinely in every-day life.

It is most important to realise that these gestures are simply a context and response-dependant sequence which will culminate in threatened or overt aggression, only if all else fails. Contrary to persistent misinformation, the gestures identified are nothing to do with a purported dominant or submissive state relative to companions. In all dogs, inappropriate social responses to appeasement behaviour will result in its devaluing and the necessity, from a dog’s perspective, to move up the ladder. Aggression is therefore created in any situation where appeasement behaviour is chronically misunderstood and not effective in obtaining the socially expected outcome. Dogs may progress to overt aggression within seconds during a single episode if the perceived threat occurs quickly and at close quarters, or learn to dispense with lower rungs on the ladder over time, if repeated efforts to appease are misunderstood and responded to inappropriately. As a consequence, a so-called ‘unpredictable’ aggressive response, without any obvious preamble, may occur in any context which predicts inescapable threat to the dog, when in reality it was entirely predictable.

(Shepherd, K 2009. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behaviour, 2nd edition.pages 13 – 16. Editors Debra F. Horwitz and Daniel S. Mills).

Category: Dogs

Is Your Dog Scared?
If your dog is scared, GET HIM AWAY FORM WHAT SCARES HIM; It may be time to leave the park.

Is Your Dog Pushy?
Pushy dogs aren’t listening to other dogs’ signals! Give him a time-out ON A LEASH or OUTSIDE THE PARK until he has calmed down and can show good manners.

 

Symptoms of Hypothermia in Dogs

  • Shaking (sometimes violent)
  • Shallow breathing
  • Weakness
  • Low blood pressure
  • Dilated pupils
  • Coma Muscle stiffness
  • Blank stare
  • Pale or blue gums
  • Listlessness
 

Types

Mild –

Mild cases may be treated at home

Moderate –

Moderate cases may also be treated successfully at home but the pet owner may decide to seek professional guidance

Severe –

n severe cases, the dog needs the immediate help of a professional veterinarian as his life is imminently threatened

 

Causes of Hypothermia in Dogs

Hypothermia can happen anytime your dog is exposed to cold, especially extreme temperatures. Take caution when exercising your dog in the winter. It can happen to dogs that live entirely out of doors in particular if they are not brought inside at least during inclement weather or do not have adequate shelter. A matted coat on a dog does not provide the same protection a well-groomed coat does. The mats allow wind and cold to get to the dog’s skin.  Read more at: https://wagwalking.com/condition/hypothermia
Category: Dogs

Originally from the ASPCA website: People Foods to Avoid Feeding Your Pets

Alcohol
Alcoholic beverages and food products containing alcohol can cause vomiting, diarrhea, decreased coordination, central nervous system depression, difficulty breathing, tremors, abnormal blood acidity, coma and even death. Under no circumstances should your pet be given any alcohol. If you suspect that your pet has ingested alcohol, contact your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center immediately.

Avocado
Avocado is primarily a problem for birds, rabbits, donkeys, horses, and ruminants including sheep and goats. The biggest concern is for cardiovascular damage and death in birds.  Horses, donkeys and ruminants frequently get swollen, edematous head and neck.

Chocolate, Coffee and Caffeine
These products all contain substances called methylxanthines, which are found in cacao seeds, the fruit of the plant used to make coffee, and in the nuts of an extract used in some sodas. When ingested by pets, methylxanthines can cause vomiting and diarrhea, panting, excessive thirst and urination, hyperactivity, abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures and even death. Note that darker chocolate is more dangerous than milk chocolate. White chocolate has the lowest level of methylxanthines, while baking chocolate contains the highest.

Citrus
The stems, leaves, peels, fruit and seeds of citrus plants contain varying amounts of citric acid, essential oils that can cause irritation and possibly even central nervous system depression if ingested in significant amounts. Small doses, such as eating the fruit, are not likely to present problems beyond minor stomach upset.

Coconut and Coconut Oil
When ingested in small amounts, coconut and coconut-based products are not likely to cause serious harm to your pet. The flesh and milk of fresh coconuts do contain oils that may cause stomach upset, loose stools or diarrhea. Because of this, we encourage you to use caution when offering your pets these foods. Coconut water is high in potassium and should not be given to your pet.

Grapes and Raisins
Although the toxic substance within grapes and raisins is unknown, these fruits can cause kidney failure. Until more information is known about the toxic substance, it is best to avoid feeding grapes and raisins to dogs.

Macadamia Nuts
Macadamia nuts can cause weakness, depression, vomiting, tremors and hyperthermia in dogs. Signs usually appear within 12 hours of ingestion and can last approximately 12 to 48 hours.

Milk and Dairy
Because pets do not possess significant amounts of lactase (the enzyme that breaks down lactose in milk), milk and other dairy-based products cause them diarrhea or other digestive upset.

Nuts
Nuts, including almonds, pecans, and walnuts, contain high amounts of oils and fats. The fats can cause vomiting and diarrhea, and potentially pancreatitis in pets.

Onions, Garlic, Chives
These vegetables and herbs can cause gastrointestinal irritation and could lead to red blood cell damage. Although cats are more susceptible, dogs are also at risk if a large enough amount is consumed. Toxicity is normally diagnosed through history, clinical signs and microscopic confirmation of Heinz bodies.

Raw/Undercooked Meat, Eggs and Bones
Raw meat and raw eggs can contain bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli that can be harmful to pets and humans. Raw eggs contain an enzyme called avidin that decreases the absorption of biotin (a B vitamin), which can lead to skin and coat problems. Feeding your pet raw bones may seem like a natural and healthy option that might occur if your pet lived in the wild. However, this can be very dangerous for a domestic pet, who might choke on bones, or sustain a grave injury should the bone splinter and become lodged in or puncture your pet’s digestive tract.

Salt and Salty Snack Foods
Large amounts of salt can produce excessive thirst and urination, or even sodium ion poisoning in pets. Signs that your pet may have eaten too many salty foods include vomiting, diarrhea, depression, tremors, elevated body temperature, seizures and even death. As such, we encourage you to avoid feeding salt-heavy snacks like potato chips, pretzels, and salted popcorn to your pets.

Xylitol
Xylitol is used as a sweetener in many products, including gum, candy, baked goods and toothpaste. It can cause insulin release in most species, which can lead to liver failure. The increase in insulin leads to hypoglycemia (lowered sugar levels). Initial signs of toxicosis include vomiting, lethargy and loss of coordination. Signs can progress to seizures. Elevated liver enzymes and liver failure can be seen within a few days.

Yeast Dough
Yeast dough can rise and cause gas to accumulate in your pet’s digestive system. This can be painful and can cause the stomach to bloat, and potentially twist, becoming a life threatening emergency. The yeast produce ethanol as a by-product and a dog ingesting raw bread dough can become drunk (See alcohol).

Category: Dogs

The amount and type of chocolate ingested is important, as they are the determining factors for the severity of the toxicity. The three types of chocolate that you must be aware of are:

  1. Milk Chocolate – Mild signs of toxicity can occur when 0.7 ounces per pound of body weight is ingested; severe toxicity occurs when two ounces per pound of body weight is ingested (or as little as one pound of milk chocolate for a 20-pound dog).
  2. Semi-Sweet Chocolate – Mild signs of toxicity can occur when 0.3 ounce per pound of body weight is ingested; severe toxicity occurs when one ounce per pound of body weight is ingested (or as little as six ounces of semi-sweet chocolate for a 20-pound dog).
  3. Baking Chocolate – This type of chocolate has the highest concentration of caffeine and theobromine. Therefore, as little as two small one-ounce squares of baking chocolate can be toxic to a 20-pound dog (or 0.1 ounce per pound of body weight).

Chocolate contains substances known as methylxanthines (specifically caffeine and theobromine), which dogs are far more sensitive to than people. Different types of chocolate contain varying amounts of methylxanthines. In general, though, the darker and more bitter the chocolate the greater the danger.

What Should I Do if My Dog Ate Chocolate?

If you know your dog has ingested chocolate , or has any of the symptoms1 below, contact the Pet Poison Helpline at 1-855-213-6680 or your veterinarian right away.

Common Household Items

 

Common Household Items Serving Theobromine* Caffeine*
Ice Cream Rich Chocolate 1 cup ( 148g) 178mg 5.9mg
Peanut M&M’s 1 cup (170g) 184mg 17mg
Ready to Eat Chocolate Pudding 4 oz (108g) 75.6mg 2.2mg
Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bar 1.55 oz (43g) 64mg 9mg
Hershey’s Chocolate Syrup 2 Tbsp (39g) 64mg 5mg
Hershey’s KISSES (Milk Chocolate) 9 pieces (41g) 61mg 9mg
Hershey’s Semi-Sweet Baking Bar 1 Tbsp (15g) 55mg 7mg
Cookies, brownies,
commercially prepared
1 Square
(2 –3/4” sq x 7/8″) (56g)
43.7mg 1.1mg
KIT KAT Wafer Bar 1 bar (42g) 48.7mg 5.9mg
REESE’S Peanut Butter Cups (2pk) 2 cups (45g) 32.4mg 3.2mg
Doughnut, cake-type,
chocolate, sugared or glazed
1 Doughnut
(3′ dia) (43g)
12.6mg 0.6mg
Chocolate Chip Cookies ,
made with margarine
1 Cookie Med
(2 1/4″ dia) (16g)
20.3mg 2.6mg
Milky Way 1 bar (58g) 37.1 mg 3.5mg
Generic Hot Fudge Sundae Topping 1 Sundae (158g) 77.4mg 1.6mg
REESE’S PIECES Candy 1 package (46g) 0mg 0mg

 * The amount of caffeine and theobromine will vary naturally due to growing conditions and cocoa bean sources and variety.

Foods Highest in Theobromine

 

Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened,
processed with alkali [Dutch cocoa]
1 cup (86g) 2266 mg 67.1mg
Baking chocolate,
unsweetened, squares
1 cup, grated (132g) 1712 mg 106mg
Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened 1 cup (86g) 1769 mg 198mg
Baking chocolate,
unsweetened, liquid
1 oz (28g) 447 mg 13.2mg
Puddings, chocolate flavor,
low calorie, regular, dry mix
1 Package (40g) 238 mg 7.2mg
Desserts, rennin, chocolate, dry mix 1 Package, 2 oz (57g) 242 mg 7.4mg
Puddings, chocolate flavor,
low calorie, instant, dry mix
1 Package, 1.4oz box (40g) 189 mg 5.6mg
Syrups, chocolate 2 tbsp (35g) 68.3 mg 2.1mg
Cocoa, dry powder, hi-fat or breakfast,
processed with alkali
1 oz (28g) 685 mg 20.2mg
Candies, chocolate, dark,
70-85% cacao solids
I bar (101g) 810 mg 80.8mg
Cocoa, dry powder, hi-fat or breakfast,
plain
1 Tbsp (5g) 92.6 mg 10.3mg

Symptoms of concern include:

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Increased body temperature
  • Increased reflex responses
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Rapid breathing
  • Increased heart rate
  • Low blood pressure
  • Seizures
  • Advanced signs (cardiac failure, weakness, and coma)

Cribbed from PetMD.com
“CAFFEINE & THEOBROMINE.” The Hershey Company. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2013.
“Nutrition Information.” Nutrition Facts, Calories in Food, Labels, Nutritional Information and Analysis – NutritionData.com. Condé Nast, n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2013.

Category: Dogs

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